A Winter murder at a Seaside Village

The seaside village of Enniscrone in west Sligo along the wild atlantic way, has long been a popular holiday destination, going back as far as the 19th century, when the Victorians began visiting the small seaside village, located on the shores of Killala Bay in west county Sligo. It has been a popular destination since the 1850’s, when the local landlord, Robert Orme built the Cliff bathhouse for holidaymakers to enjoy the Atlantic ocean, the old bathhouse building still exists to this very day.

In the winter of 1909, a newly married couple visited the village on a short holiday, while one of the spouse’s planned a short relaxing break, the other had more grisly plans.

On the 10th December 1908, Michael Gallagher a native of Mayo and a Constable in the Royal Irish Constabulary, married Sarah Knox, a 22 year old young woman from Crossmolina in Mayo. Michael was older at 30 years old and had joined the RIC in 1898. He was described as a powerfully built man and nearly six foot tall.  

Michael told Sarah as he was eleven years in the force he needed to have a longer service before getting married and so the marriage was to be kept secret. Sarah remained living at her family home at Cloonkee, Crossmolina, Co. Mayo, unaware that it was after seven years a member of the R.I.C. could marry.

Sarah Gallagher nee Knox


In November 1909, Sarah received the following letter written from the barracks at Aclare, Co. Sligo.

 

R.I.C., Aclare
Dear Sarah – Just a line to let you know I received your welcome letter a few days ago. I am glad to see by it you are well. I will meet you Thursday next, 4th Inst. at Ballina at the usual place. Then we can have a few hours before we start for the seaside. Keep your mind to yourself, and I will get a few days at home about the matter. Excuse haste – post leaving. – Yours as ever.
M. GALLAGHER
x x x

At Enniscrone, Co. Sligo the couple stopped off at a hostelry and Michael asked for two rooms for himself and his “sister”.  There were no rooms available and they secured a room elsewhere as man and wife. Later that day, the couple were observed by the Coastguard as they went for a walk on Saturday evening at 5 pm strolling along the pier.

Enniscrone Pier & Cliff bathhouse – Credit: National Library of Ireland

 

Two hours later, at 7 pm, Michael returned to their accommodation alone and didn’t alert anyone to Sarah been missing. Michael paid the hotel bill and left Enniscrone village and cycled back to the RIC barracks in Aclare in south Sligo, a distance of 19 miles (31 kilometres).
On Sunday morning, the body of Sarah was discovered by two fishermen.  An investigation was quickly launched and it wasn’t long before the woman was traced back to the hotel and walking with a man the previous evening.  When tracked down at Aclare barracks, Michael Gallagher denied being at Enniscrone with a woman. He was allowed to sit at the fire in the dayroom as a search was carried out. Being granted permission to go to his room he “dashed out the back door into the dark night. In a moment all was confusion and alarm. The police abandoned their search and snatching lanterns ran in pursuit of the fugitive. Some jumped on bicycles and rode furiously down the different roads.”
At the Inquest into Sarah`s death, held a few days later, when her brother was being questioned, a jury member remarked

“I suppose he got a fortune when he got married”

“Yes” said witness, “but not all.”

Dowry system in Ireland

Dowry (generally called ‘fortune’ in Ireland; spré in Irish) is money or property brought by a bride to her husband at marriage. It was an important matter in nineteenth-century Ireland.  In the past, many marriages in Ireland were set by financial standing, and by today’s standards it would be nice to think love and compatibility came into the equation, this was not the main reason for marriage in Edwardian times, despite this, in the majority of cases love did grow through companionship and endearment, sadly this wasn’t the case for Sarah and Michael.

Though some brides married without dowries, payment could be substantial for others. The need for dowries helped parents to control their children’s choice of marriage partner. Not surprisingly, dowries were often the cause of disputes, particularly because they were sometimes paid by instalments or full payment was delayed.

The Inquest

The Inquest was opened by Dr J. Flannery and was held at the Enniscrone coastguard building, as the landlady of the hotel was giving evidence, a telegram was received, the fugitive Michael Gallagher, had been found with his throat cut at Harlech’s Lodge in Aclare, Sligo.
“The reading of the wire was received by the Jury with loud applause, which the Coroner promptly suppressed. The Jury found that Sarah Gallagher had been murdered by her husband who drowned her.”

Sarah’s funeral attracted many mourners, “The whole countryside afterwards followed the funeral cortege for miles along the roads home.”, which was in stark contrast to Michael’s funeral.

The funeral of Michael Gallagher took place from Aclare to Bohey near Crossmolina. Practically unanimously all car-owners refused to hire out their vehicles for the occasion. There was vigorous booing as the funeral passed and one woman flung mud at the hearse.  A special force of police from Crossmolina met the cortege as it passed through Sarah Knox`s village. It was quite dark when the body was laid in the grave, and no priest was present.

 

Constable Michael Gallagher was born in Co. Mayo in 1876 and joined the RIC in 1898.

 

Poignantly, on the morning of her murder Sarah had complained to a fellow guest that “she had lost her wedding ring and cried long and bitterly because she thought it was an ill-omen.”
A wedding ring was later found in Michael Gallagher`s possession when he was searched.

An Edwardian lady watches over her children fishing beside the Cliff bathhouse at Enniscrone. Credit: National library of Ireland

 

Possible Motive

The Coroner thought it was money related and Michael had been insane, but it was thought it was premeditated if he took the ring from Sarah in the morning.  Her brother, said Michael had sent 10 shillings on one occasion, that the marriage was known about in Sarah`s parish but he did not know if Michael`s family knew.  Perhaps he married her for money, but did not get all he was expecting, if the marriage became known to his superior’s it would have been a black mark on his career.  He had Sarah coached to call him Tommy at the boardinghouse but she slipped up a couple of times and called him Michael. Her brother said she often complained that Michael did not bring her away, but the excuse about not being long enough in the service was believed by Sarah’s family.

 

 

 

Sarah appears on the 1901 census aged 15 years old, living with her father James, a farmer and her 6 siblings in a house in the townland of Cloonkee, Fortlands, Mayo which is a few miles from the village of Crossmolina.

 

 

Sources:

Newspaper archive - Independent, 14/11/1909
Newspaper archive - The Sligo Champion - 11/1909
Text: Tricia Dillon - Facebook group - Royal Irish Constabulary1816-1922 -A forgotten Irish Police Force
Irish census 1901
RIC rules: http://www.royalirishconstabulary.com/
Dowry System: http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/Dowry_and_Marriage
Dowry endearment quote: http://thewildgeese.irish
Photos: National Library of Ireland

The Secret Scripture walking tour

Book your tickets today via Eventbrite.

Book a ticket for the guided Secret Scripture walking tour and discover Sligo town at the turn of the 20th century, from the perspective of one Sligo family, follow in their footsteps and see where they lived, worked and played. The Sligo secret scripture trail, is a local history and literary tour based around Sligo town. The award winning author Sebastian Barry, set his novels in Sligo town and wrote about his family who resided in Sligo at the time. This tour will take you through the streets of Sligo where the characters walked, combining the books and social history of Sligo.

Organiser: Melcoo Tours

Email: melcooireland@gmail.com or info@melcoo.com

Phone: 353-85-2086386

Walking tour Sligo
Book a local history and literary tour of Sligo

 

Self-guided App Tours

You can also download an app I have created for the Secret Scripture tour.  The walking tour app is available on iOS and Android

Instructions:

Go to the Apple or Play store and search for Guidigo, download this free app, then search for Sligo Secret Scripture trail and sign in with a gmail, facebook or email account.

The app, guides you around several locations, the majority of which, can be reached on foot, the locations further out from the town, have been placed towards the end of the tour. We have suggested an order to explore the places but feel free to take the tour at your own pace, in whatever order suits you best. The map suggests a route of numbered stops but where you start and stop is entirely up to you. Instructions and directions are provided and you can check the map at any time, during the tour.

The tour is based around the books of author Sebastian Barry who set his novels, The Whereabouts of Eneas McNulty, The Secret Scripture and The Temporary Gentleman in Sligo.

This masonic lodge meeting is no secret

There are lots of events happening around the country for Culture Night, which takes place on Friday 16th September 2016.  You can check out the Culture Night website to see what is on in your area.

I’m thinking of going to the Masonic hall in Sligo, which is only open to the general public on Culture Night. You get a tour of the building and a short talk on both the history of the building and Freemasonry in Sligo and Ireland.  This tour has been really popular in the last few years, I saw on social media in previous years, photos of queues of people, stretching down The Mall, this year thankfully, you can book a free ticket on Event brite.

In a previous blog post, I mentioned the impressive Masonic Lodge, which is perched up on the top of The Mall and has a great view over Sligo town.  It’s a detached 2 storey redbrick built between 1890 and 1900, it features a Belvedere tower above the entrance.  According to Wiki,  “A belvedere (from Italian for “fair view”) is an architectural structure sited to take advantage of a fine or scenic view.   A Belvedere may be built in the upper part of a building so as to command said view. ”

 

Masonic lodge Sligo
The Masonic lodge in Sligo town.

 

A scandalous event at the Dromore West Workhouse

I came across this interesting social history case in the DIPPAM Archives recently. DIPPAM which stands for Documenting Ireland: Parliament, People and Migration, is an online virtual archive of documents and sources relating to the history of Ireland, and its migration experience from the 18th to the late 20th centuries.

The documents related to an event which occurred in 1879 and an inquiry was called to investigate how the Dromore West Workhouse was been managed.

A Captain Spaight, who was the Local Government Board Inspector, chaired the Inquiry, and it concerned a Miss Annie Kiolehan, who was working as the headmistress in the Dromore West Workhouse in county Sligo in the north west of Ireland in 1879.

Annie Kiolehan had given birth to a baby girl on the 24th September 1880, Annie was living and still teaching in the workhouse in the weeks leading up to the birth and she appears to have kept the pregnancy hidden until a week before the birth. As Annie was not married the baby was deemed illegitimate and after giving birth to a girl named Estella, Annie was obliged to resign from her teaching post and leave the workhouse, she left her baby under the charge of the workhouse. The birth of the baby by an employee of the workhouse caused scandal in the area and letters and articles appeared in the local press at the time.  An inquiry was called for, to investigate the incident and to find out how the workhouse was been run.  At the time of the birth, Miss Kiolehan had not stated who the father of the child was, a few weeks later she gave the name of the father as a Peter Hale.

Irish Times newspaper report – Nov 1880

 

Peter Hale, was the son of the Patron of the workhouse and had visited the workhouse several times. The report reveals how employees at the workhouse were frequently drunk and it was believed this gave rise to the incident.

Annie states that on New Years Eve of 31st December 1879 she had gone to bed early and woke up to find a man in her room, she then fainted and when she woke up the man was gone, she wasn’t certain at the time but thought the man looked like Peter Hale. When questioned about why she thought it was Peter Hale, Miss Kiolehan stated she had received an anonymous letter referring to the incident and how she shouldn’t report it as to not disgrace herself. She also gave evidence, stating how she was out walking one day after the incident and Peter Hale had tried to kiss her and asked her, had she anymore Midnight visitors.

Several witnesses were called to give evidence at the Inquiry, including the Chaplain at the workhouse who baptised the baby, he states he baptised the infant Estella, the Chaplain is also asked about the name Emma, which he denies knowing about.  A Porter gave evidence and his entrance book was submitted as evidence, which records the coming and goings of visitors to the workhouse, as Peter Hale was related to the Patron, he wasn’t recorded in the book. The inquiry also mentions how the Master of the workhouse, a Thomas Lavelle and his wife the Matron, Mary Lavelle were frequently drunk and even while attending the Inquiry.

Old Skeleton keys
The Master and Matron of the Workhouse were questioned about access to keys to Annie’s room.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peter Hale denied the accusations that he was the father of the child or that he had more than a passing acquaintance with Miss Kiolehan.  Peter was the son of Richard Hale, one of the director’s on the Board of Guardians for the workhouse, he was also related to the Matron Mary Lavelle and the Medical Officer Doctor Charles Mahon.  Peter Hale mentioned other men he had seen Annie walking with or talking to, one of which was her cousin Peter Wall.

The inquiry verdict

After two days of evidence, Captain Spaight recommended that the Master and Matron should resign from their posts and that Annie Kiolehan had most likely been seduced outside of the workhouse and that Peter Hale was not the father of the child. Thus ensuring the Workhouse was not held responsible.

The child remained in the workhouse and Annie offered to pay 1d 6s for the child’s upkeep, this was refused by the Board of the workhouse, who stated the child must be removed from the workhouse as the child was not sick or if the child remained, Annie would need to admit herself into the workhouse.

Annie appears to have come from a well to do family, as she mentions during her evidence how she spent 12 months in New York, after she failed a teaching exam, she was a young educated woman of about 30 years of age in 1880, who had the fare to travel and return from America in the late 1870’s and also how despite resigning from her teaching position she was offering to pay money towards her child’s upkeep. On the advice of her sister, she hired a solicitor a Mr Mannion to represent her during the Inquiry.

Reading between the lines of the inquiry report, I think Annie and Peter, had a relationship of some sort at the time, as Annie mentions lending a book called Kusheen to Peter, they appeared to be more than passing acquaintances.

 

little-girl-vintage
Old vintage photo of an unknown little girl

I wondered after reading the report, what became of Annie and her child, I checked the census for Kiolehan, which is an unusual spelling of the surname and I found Annie/Bridget in the 1901 census and in the genealogy records, it shows the birth of Estella Kivlehan in September 1880 and then a record for Estille Hale, christened on the 4th of November 1880, her parents are listed as Annie Kivlhan and her father as Peter Hale and the place of residence is the workhouse, next to the record is the word illegitimate. and the name Emma has been inserted, which ties in with the details which came out during the inquiry.

Estille Hale
Source: National Library of Ireland – Parish records

 

I checked the 1901 census and can’t find a 20 year old Emma or Estille, I did find Peter Hale and his wife of twenty two years, Winifred and their four children. One of the witnesses during the inquiry, remarked how Annie was unfortunate to be seduced by such as person, where she had nothing to gain and no hope of marriage, the inference that Peter was already married. On the 1901 census, Bridget Kiolehan is listed as a retired national school teacher and was living just a few miles away from the workhouse, in what appears to be a boarding house in Templeboy, Dromore West in County Sligo.

I can’t find any other records for Emma or Estella, perhaps she was adopted and her name changed.

I was telling my mother about the case as she is originally from Dromore West and she hadn’t heard of it but she did mention, how her great grandfather had worked in the Workhouse, a William O’Hara and how they were never sure where he had come from originally as he had died young. I would love to learn more about my family connection to the Workhouse and about this case, if you have heard about it before or know more about it, do let me know.

 

Sources: 
http://www.dippam.ac.uk/
1. Paper relating to Management and Discipline of Workhouse at Dromore West, County Sligo

2. http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/
National Archives of Ireland

3. http://www.workhouses.org.uk/DromoreWest/

4. Images: Pixabay.com

5. National Library of Ireland - Parish records

6. Newspaper archive - Irish Times - 16 Nov 1880

The light of evening, Lissadell

 
We visited Lissadell House in May and did the guided tour.  Lissadell House, is a big country house, located in North Sligo.  It originally belonged to the Gore-Booth family, who were Anglo Irish landlords.  They sold it to the Cassidy-Walsh family in 2004, who have since renovated it and use it as their own family home and have also managed to turn it into an interesting visitor attraction, which is open to the public from March until October each year.  This is the family home of Countess Constance Markievicz and her sister Eva Gore-Booth and the poet W.B. Yeats was a frequent visitor and he later wrote the poem, In Memory of Eva Gore-Booth and Con Markiewicz, which refers to Lissadell House.

 

 

 

Lissadell House windows
Sash windows at Lissadell House

 

In 6th class, I had completed a history project and chose Countess Markievicz as the subject, later that same year, I visited Lissadell when I made my confirmation back in May 1992! but it wasn’t opened to the public at the time. We started off the tour in the Billiards room, there were lots of interesting old photos on the wall and memorabilia laid out on the table, which had belonged to Henry Gore-Booth, who was an Arctic explorer and the father of Constance and Eva Gore-Booth.

 

Lissadell House
Lissadell House

 

We also saw the oval shaped Gallery room, which was designed as a Music Room.  The kitchen, one of my favourite rooms to visit in big houses, is located downstairs and reminded me of Downton Abbey.

Lissadell House was designed by the architect Francis Goodwin and built in the 1830’s to a neo-classic greek revivalist style, I think the tour guide mentioned how the architecture of the house is similar to that of an ancient Greek temple.

 

Lissadell Court yard
Lissadell Courtyard which houses the Exhibition centre and Tea rooms.

 

There is a large exhibition centre located in the courtyard buildings, with galleries on Countess Markievicz, William and Jack Yeats.

If you are visiting Sligo, it is well worth a visit and this year, they also have a 1916 Easter Rising themed exhibition.

You can check out their website here for visitor opening times and to find out about special events which take place at Lissadell House.